History of the Department of Internal Affairs


Historical records indicate that the development of current internal affairs bodies has a close connection with the history of the Uzbek statehood. Specifically, in addition to military warriors, "guards" (“soqchi”), "watchman" (“qorovul”), "chokar", "shikhna", "yasavul", "kokaldosh"(a person responsible for the internal security of the country), "muhtasib" (inspector and censor of moral), "posbonboshi", "sarboz", "mirshabboshi" ((head of watchmen) and that the "mirshabs" (guard of Emirs, watchman) performed the functions of guarding the governor’s residence, castles, and others, maintaining peaceful order in villages and towns, ensuring public safety and combating crime, identifying, investigating, and punishing the criminals. In its turn, it shows that internal affairs have its own historical roots.

If we look at past, we can see that the names, functions, and working purposes of these structures have changed in response to the demands of the political conditions of different periods. For instance, the police system established in Turkestan, which became a colony of the Russian Empire at the end of the 19th century, mainly served for the interests of the colonial empire. Together with public peace, public safety and the fight against crime they were engaged in activities to assist military units in controlling movement of the local population, preventing and combating in national liberation movements. 

Similarly, in the former Soviet Union period, the task of the internal affairs bodies (originally called the "workers 'and peasants' militia") was aimed at establishing the Soviet regime in the territory and further strengthening its ideas, along with public security and the fight against crime. They tried to fulfill all missions given by the Center in time and perfectly.

In the years of independence the law enforcement agencies have become a defender and supporter of our people, a reliable guarantor of peace and serenity, public order and safety of citizens in our country. Notably, because of the reforms of recent years, we will see advanced improvement in this system by transforming law enforcement agencies into a socially-oriented professional structure that provides timely and quality assistance to the population.

Moreover, in various difficult and risky situations, the law enforcement agencies have a large number of dedicated employees who have made a worthy contribution to the maintenance of peace and serenity and combating against crime in the country.

Their above mentioned hard work, bravery and heroism as an integral part of the history of law enforcement agencies will remain like a model school for today and future generations. 




I.The development of security and internal safety structures in the ancient countries of Central Asia

Security and internal safety in the ancient countries of Central Asia (B.C. 7 - A.D. 8th centuries)

With the appearance of the first state associations in the territory of our country, there was a necessity to protect their borders from external enemies, to secure the peace of the population, to establish order in socio-economic relations among people, to protect cities and castles. It led to the development of regulatory structures with specific functions.

 For example, in “Avesta” the sacred book of Zoroastrianism, which was widespread in Central Asia in the first millennium BC, the information on statehood, political and legal ideas, social norms of governing property, marriage and family relations, wrongdoing and punishment, court and judicial practice are mentioned. 

Note: “Avesta” the sacred book of Zoroastrianism, which was widespread in Central Asia in the middle of II millennium BC. “Avesto” consisted of 21 books. Abu Rayhan Biruni in his "Monuments of the Past Generations" book wrote that during the ruling of King Darius of Iran, this book was printed in golden letters on the skins of 12,000 black cattle. Our country celebrated the 2700th anniversary of the Avesto, and firstly translated into Uzbek and published in 2001.

“Avesta” had a system of punishment for a crime:  the death penalty, imprisonment, corporal punishment (beating), remission (compensation), deportation, revenge. The heavier punishments were given for the repeated crime. Focus on judicial issues and providing information on individuals for a justice were also mentioned.

Types of crimes were structured as followings:  

- crimes against religion (heresy, marriage with the one who has another religion, illegally completing the mission of priest, atheism;  

- crimes of immorality (intentional or insane attack, intimidation, doctor's harmful action, abortion, harm to a woman's health during pregnancy);

- crimes against a person (intentional murder, infliction of severe and minor body injuries);

- property crimes (thievery, robbery, greed, invasion, cheating, non-repayment of debts);

- crimes against animals (inappropriate killing of animals, abuse of domestic animals);

- crimes against nature (damage to soil, water, air, fire and flor

The heavier punishments were given for the repeated crime. Focus on judicial issues and providing information on individuals for a justice were also mentioned.

It was crucial to maintain internal order, combating trade and property disputes together with securing economic development and political stability in the country associations such as Sogdian, Tocharian, Hephthalite and the Turk Khaganate, which emerged in the early Middle Ages in the territory our country. Those conditions were the reason for the necessity of a permanent military force consisting of brave and courageous mercenaries with good weapons. During this period, in Sogdia militarized units (guards), to maintain internal order and combating crime known as "chokars" (armed young men) were formed. 

Specifically, the caravan routes in Sogdia and nearby areas, the safety of traders, the arrival of caravans safely to destinations were mostly dependent on the activities of loyal and courageous chokars. Trade routes along the Great Silk Road, which connected the country with East and West, brought huge revenue to the country’s treasury. That’s why in that time, the safety of trade caravans were essential. Special safety guards followed the trade caravans from one destination to another and protected them from the attack of pirates. Moreover, chokars served as military force in wars and military conflicts. They controlled the order and prevented crime among militaries.  

The important stage in Uzbek statehood was the establishment of Turk Khaganate in the 6th century. In that period, chokars' weapons were improved, their military skills were enhanced, and tactical methods strengthened their movement. In Khaganate all men were forced to the military service and personal guards of Khagan were called as “fulie” (“wolf”) in Chinese chronicles. 

Special administrative and military-political management system was established in the Khanate to maintain many tribe and clans, collect taxes and tributes from them.  

 In the 8th century, Arab Caliphate conquered the territory of Central Asia. As a result, along with Islam, Islamic ethics (Shari’a) law, Arabic script the government system and positions of the caliphate (e.g., emir, reis, Sadr, qadi, mufti, etc.) were implemented in the region. 

In the development of Islam, islamic ethics (shari'a) and islamic jurisprudence (fiqh) scholars of hadith (muhaddith) and fiqh from Mawarannahr played important role. Especially, Imam al-Bukhari (Muhammad ibn Ismail al-Bukhari (810-870), his contemporary and follower Tirmidhi (Abu Isa Muhammad at-Tirmidhi (824-894), Mahmud az-Zamakhshari (1075-1144), Abu Mansur al-Maturidi ( 870-944) and Burhanuddin al-Marghinani (1123-1197) have significant contributions. Imam al-Bukhari's masterpiece Al-Jami 'as-Sahih, which contains 7 275 authentic hadiths, has been highly regarded in the Muslim East for almost twelve centuries as the main source of Islamic teachings after the Qur'an, and has been studied as a textbook. The scholars relied on this work, which served as the "legal codes" of their time in resolving the rules of Shari’a (islamic ethics), social relations, marriage, family and property.

 The famous faqih (adviser) Burhanuddin al-Marghinani most rare - four-volume work "Hidaya" dealt with all the urgent issues of life of Muslims at that time, including family and social relations, property, trade, crime and punishment, legacy, guaranty and other matters related to the duty and responsibilities of people. 

Therefore, the book "Hidaya" served as an essential guide for judges in consideration of court cases before the appearance of Soviet courts in the country in the 30s of the last century. The book serves as both the theoretical and practical guide for lawyers in the Muslim world today, as the most accurate, consistent and perfect source on Islamic law.

Preservation of peace and good order in Central Asia in the Middle Ages (9-15th centuries) 

After the collapse of Arab Caliphate in the last 9th century, many sovereign countries established and in Mawarannahr the rule of Samanids dynasty was started.  

Samanids (865-999) initially formed a small public administration to govern a great country. 

According to Narshakhiy, ten Divan management managed the Somonid state. The palace guards played a significant role in the life of the state and the ruler’s palace. The corps of military service included conquered Turkish slaves (gulams), as well as young soldiers from the local population. They were classified as follows:   

- Hajibi Buzurg (Chief Chamberlain) - was one of the highest officials in the Samanid, Ghaznavid, Khwarezm Shah states, he controlled access to the king and coordinated relations between the dargah and the divans, and was responsible for the security of the palace.

- Hajib - was a General of the palace, he coordinated a large contingent of guards (gulams), who served in the guarding of palaces and government offices and performed responsible missions in military activities.

- Sahibi Kharos - was head of the palace guards in the Samanid state.

- Chief Qadi - was the magistrate or judge of a Shari’a court, who also supervised qadies works.

- Amiri Kharos (police chief or captain of the watch) - was responsible for the execution of the ruler’s punishments verdicts. 

- Salahdar (weapon keepers) -  was responsible for the supply of weapons in the palace and their storage.

- Shikhna (Chief watchman) - was chief of mirshabs (watchmen), he headed a special militarized units in maintaining public order and fighting crime. 

- Mirshab (watchman, also nightwatchman) - was a soldier who specialized in maintaining order within the country, public serenity, and fighting crime. Moreover, watchmen collected tax revenue, found conscientious protesters, enforced judges’ (qadies)’ sentences, and guarded convicted criminals.

In the period of Samanids and Karakhanids separate divans for military affairs, public serenity, and internal order were functioned. Traditionally, mostly Khagan or his son was commander in chief. 

Khwarezmian Empire (1097-1231) had a powerful army in its time. Besides usual units, khwarezmian owned mamluks (meaning "property", Non-Muslim slave soldiers) named haras. This system firstly established by Kwaresmshah Ala ad-Din Tekish. That system included ten thousand people. Besides securing Kwarezmshah and his family Haras were also involved in various expeditions, and accompanying trade caravans. 

In Khwarezmian Empire shkhnas with its units performed the police force in maintaining peace of people, public order and punishing the wrongdoers. Khwarezmian appointed their own shikhna in all occupied regions, town and villages. In their period Domestic and foreign trade grew as cities and caravan road were well guarded.

 All officials, also armed senior officials were required to have their own uniform and seals for the letters. Names and occupation of officials were written in the seals and they were given only by Khagan. Seal were served as “work license” of the official. There were specific rules for determining the salary of officials, the increase or decrease of which depended on the change of position and the performed service.

The period of Tamerlane and the Timurid Empire has a remarkable place in the history of Uzbekistan. During this period, a great centralized state was established. Emir Timur ended the dispersal and conflicts in Mawarannahr and Khorezm and united the peoples living from the Syrdarya to the Aral Sea under a single country. It played a decisive role in the fate of the peoples of Mawarannahr.

During the period of Tamerlane, the head of the central apparatus was the Cabinet of Ministers, consisting of seven ministries headed by a divan begi - the prime minister. The first vizier (minister) was in charge of taxes, police force and serenity of the country. The second was the Minister of Military Affairs, who was in charge of soldiers' salaries and food supplies. The third vizier (minister) was responsible for the trade, the seal, the zakat, and the inheritance. The fourth was the Minister of Finance, who headed the state treasury. Three individual viziers (ministers) were appointed to oversee the administration of the border provinces and dependent states.

Emir Timur ruled the Empire for 35 years, and he did not stay in the capital for a single year. He spent most of his time on horseback, on military battles. During this time, large-scale construction work in the country, the busy life in the cities, trade in the markets keep on developing.

"Code of Timur," (Tuzuk-i Timuri) says about Tamerlane's rules to maintain order in the country: "I ordered to punish thieves and robbers based on "Yassa" (Law); let the mischief-maker, the immoral, greedy people be driven out from the country." 

I ordered to appoint a commandant (kutvol) in every city and villages to guard the people and to be responsible for finding the stolen things. I also ordered to appoint watchman and officers on the road to patrol the roads, to watch the passengers, traders, and strangers, and to deliver their property and other things from destination to destination.”

It should be noted that Timur, unlike other rulers of that time, was well aware of the role of active foreign economic relations. Thus he provided all the conditions, not only to military campaigns and taxes but also for the welfare of the country, he traded with other countries, regardless of nationality and religion. For instance, his letter to King Charles VI of France, states as follows: if you send your traders to our lands, we will welcome them with respect and honour, and if our traders visit your country keep them in reverence, and do not let anyone oppress and harm them. Because the world is prosperous with traders! ” 

This and many other historical facts testify to the establishment of a fair and robust system of government empowered with internal order in the period of Timur. 

Public order and watchmen (mirshabs) activity in Uzbek Khanates  (16-mid. 19th centuries) 

By the 16th and 18th centuries, the Timurid empire divided into three independent states - the Bukhara (Emirate since the middle of the 18th century), the Khiva and Kokand khanates. The state administration and the order of government in the khanates remained almost unchanged. They were similar to the period of the Timurids, Shaybanids. The ruler’s relatives and people close to him ran public administration, finance, the judiciary, the army, and the military activities. They had significant benefits and privileges in carrying out their activities.

Criminal and penalty cases were decided based on Sharia law. During this period, officials such as Sheikh Ul Islam, Dodhoh, Khudaychi, Muhtasib (Chairman), Kukaldosh controlled the observance of the rules of religion and Sharia, the correctness of the scales in the markets, security throughout the country. The Chief watchmen (mirshabboshi) were responsible for the peace and serenity of the population. The watchmen (mirshab) patrolled the towns and villages day and night, keeping order in public places, markets, and streets. They were also responsible for the execution of the sentence imposed by the qadies (court) for the crime. 

In peacetime in the khanates, the undistributed part of the army was temporarily subordinated to the Chief watchmen (mirshabboshi) to carry out responsibilities aimed at the securing the khans, policing in towns and villages, and the fight against theft and other crimes.

From ancient times, our people have strongly condemned the stealing of other people's property. If someone were found guilty in rare crimes like cheating in scales, robbery, adultery, and other similar crimes, he was publicly punished. For example, sources say that in Bukhara, a half-naked seller who betrayed a buyer in a bazaar was forced to show himself to the market and shout, "I have entered the path of the devil and deceived the buyer." Such impact measures served as a kind of "prevention" and a way to control crime.

Every neighbourhood has its elder (aksakal -respectable elder man) elected by the population. And various family disputes and conflicts between neighbours are resolved on the spot by these elders. Everybody was ought to accept and follow the judgements by them. Only in extreme cases, the police and judges intervene in the conflict.

Military and police regime in the colonial period of Russian Empire (late 19 - early 20th centuries)

From the middle of the 19th century, taking advantage of mutual conflicts and animosities between the khanates of Central Asia, the Russian Empire began to occupy them one by one. The Emirate of Bukhara and the Khiva Khanate became a protectorate of the empire. The Kokand Khanate was completely abolished and replaced by the Governor-Generalship of Turkestan.

The Governor-General of Turkestan joined military and civilian power together. He also served as Deputy Padishah, Commander of the Turkestan Military District, Ataman of the Yenisei Cossack forces, Prosecutor General and Chief of watchmen. Besides, the Ministry of Internal Affairs bodies of the Russian Empire and its representatives worked in an alternative way to it.

During this period, the police system of the Russian Empire started to develop in the country. In Russia, police activities were carried out by several government agencies. Along with the gendarmerie and security units subordinated to the Ministry of Internal Affairs, there were systems in 9 ministries and departments that performed the function of militarized police. For example, the Ministry of Trade and Industry had services of the mining police as well as the production control police. The Ministry of Finance had border police, customs police, and police detecting clandestine production. The Ministry of Justice possessed the convoy service and bailiffs. Other ministries had similar police units as well. 

The post of a chief policeman was established in the cities of Turkestan. Their rights were equal with the rights of military district commanders. New and old city police officers worked in Tashkent, and the police bailiffs subordinated to them. 10 to 30 policemen served in each police bailiffs. Locals are hardly involved in the police service. 

The local administration - the volost governors and elders (aksakals) also had the authority of the lower police system and hired the local population served them. Officers from the local people were not allowed to carry firearms. 

Senator Count K.K. Palen studied Turkestan in 1908-1910 and suggested to establish independent police departments in the cities of Turkestan, the post of a chief policeman (The Ober-Polizeimeister) in Tashkent. They increased the number of police officers in the country. The district police court was also set up to cover districts and rural areas. 

II. Internal affairs bodies during the Soviet Union time


Establishment and activity of worker-peasants’ police (1917-1924 years.) 

On October 28, 1917 (November 10 with a new date), i.e. three days after the October revolution, the People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs of the RSFSR (Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic) established a resolution "On the Workers' Militia."

By this time, the Soviets, who had taken control of Turkestan, to ensure its security tried to establish their power in the country, to develop police activities. On January 29, 1918, the Council of People's Commissars of Turkestan issued the order No. 17 "On the development of reserve personnel and reorganization of the militia". 

On January 30, 1918, "the Police Inspector department of the cities and districts of the Turkestan region" was established to lead the organization and training of a new militia. In February 1918, police stations were developed in all counties, cities and volosts. 

On April 26, 1919, in the People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (PCIA or Russian NKVD) of the Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (ASSR) was established the Main Directorate of the Workers-Peasants' Militia (Police), which headed by Bolshevik F.Ya. Tsirul. After the approval of the resolution of the Board of the People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs of the RSFSR "On the establishment of criminal investigation divisions in the police" (October 5, 1918), in the Turkestan ASSR also began to transfer criminal investigation divisions to the police from The People's Commissariat of Justice. 

On April 22, 1920, the Council of People's Commissars of the Turkestan ASSR adopted the "Regulation on the Soviet Workers-Peasants' Militia." According to that, the Republican militia consisted of the Main Department under the People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs, regional departments and city departments under the management departments of the local revolutionary committees (revkom) and executive committees (ispolkom). The responsibilities of the Turkestan Workers-Peasants' Militia were as follows:

- Fulfilment of the tasks assigned to the People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs in the field of discipline and ensuring the implementation of decisions, decrees and orders;

- Securing the state-owned organizations and buildings (telegraph, telephone, post, and more.);

- Protection of manufactories, factories, mines and other organizations and institutions involved in production;

- Securing the forests, arable lands, state reserves and fuel depots, raw materials and agricultural products;

- guarding of prisons and temporary detention camps;

- assisting all existing administrative bodies in carrying out the responsibilities assigned to them.

By the end of 1920, there were 34 cities, 26 county and 92 district police departments in the Turkestan ASSR.

Following the establishment of the Main Police Department under the People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs in Turkestan, a criminal investigation, railway, industrial, water and forensic police divisions were established. Also, because of the political situation in the country, a special volunteer police squads were formed to combat the growing Soviet regime in Turkestan.

The workers-peasants' militia (police) besides the fight against crime, played a vital role in the implementation of the decisions, orders, decrees and guidance sent by the Center to the People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs of the Turkestan ASSR. 

The work of the workers-peasants' militia was full of many contradictions. On the one hand, the current system used it as a key link in the running of its power, and on the other hand, the main task of the police was to ensure public order, but it also led inappropriately.  Due to the low level of knowledge and skills of police officers, their inexperience, and financial issues, corruption, bribery, abuse of office, and alcoholism have increased in the police force.

Police chiefs appointed mainly from the European people and their lack of knowledge of the language and customs of the local community, their indifference to the appeals of the people, and the lack of local staff eroded the public's trust in the police. Similar adverse developments were also observed in the later periods of the Soviet regime. 

The structure of the Main Police Department of the People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs of the Turkestan ASSR. MDA of the Republic of Uzbekistan 39th fund, first list, volume 48, page 24. 

Internal affairs bodies in Bukhara Republic (1920-1924 years.)  

On September 2, 1920, the Red Army collapsed the Emirate of Bukhara. On August 30, 1920, the people's militia was formed by the resolution of the All-Bukhara Revolutionary Committee. S. Yusupov headed it. The first People's Nazir (Minister) of Internal Affairs of the Bukharan People's Soviet Republic (BPSR) M. Saidjanov began his career on September 14, 1920.  The People's Ministry of Internal Affairs established The General Police Directorate and the Criminal Investigation Department. On September 15, 1920, A. Kurbanov was appointed as head of the criminal investigation department, and Fritz Meltser was appointed as his assistant.

By order of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the BPSR on September 25, 1920, the Main Directorate of the Workers-Peasants' Militia was established. On January 17, 1921, the decree of the All-Bukhara Central Executive Committee and the Council of People's Nazirs (Ministers) "On the Workers-Peasants' Militia" was adopted. According to it, the workers-peasants' militia consisted of senior and junior police officers, the chief of the criminal investigation, search agents, the clerk's office and technical staff.

Resolutions of the Council of People's Nazirs of the Bukharan People's Soviet Republic (BSSR) "On the Main Directorate of Criminal Investigation and Police Reserves" (March 5, 1922) and "On the People's Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Bukharan People's Soviet Republic" (October 10, 1923) defined the structure of internal affairs bodies, their responsibilities and powers, and the main areas of their activity.

It is clear from this document that the resolution on the People's Ministry of Internal Affairs of the BPSR was copied from the TASSR. The words "ministry" were used instead of the commissariat, and "Bukhrepublic" was used instead of the Turkestan Republic. 

On April 30, 1920, at the first All-Khorezm Assembly of People's Representatives, the establishment of Khorezm People's Soviet Republic was announced. On the same day, they declared the resolution "on establishing a police department in the country and safeguarding the city of Khiva." A Police Department was founded under the Ministry of Justice. The first nazir (minister) of Internal Affairs N.Sholikorov started his work on April 30, 1920.

In Khiva, a special police department and its branches were established. The primary responsibilities of the department were to fight against the counter-revolution, to maintain public order in the city and to fight against crime. The unit included about a thousand people's policemen. 

The police force estimated 600 men (more than 400 cavalry) by April 1923. Besides in Khiva, there were about 27 other police stations with about 30 acting senior police officers. On November 5, 1923, by the resolution of the Khorezm Central Executive Committee, the Republican Central Security Department was established under the People's Ministry of Internal Affairs to maintain the safety of citizens and order in revolutionary conditions, and preserve socialist property. On November 30, 1924, the Police Department was transferred to the Khorezm Revolutionary Committee.

The structure and activity of the internal affairs bodies in the Khorezm and Bukharan People's Soviet Republics were marked with various contradictions and disagreements. For instance, the formation of the police was based on the same "template" as in the RSFSR and the Turkestan Autonomous SSR, without taking into consideration local conditions, historically developed lifestyles and views of the population. As a result, the working process in the police from the very first days was full of problems and contradictions. 

Internal affairs bodies in the Uzbek SSR (1925 -1939 years)  

At the end of 1924, as a result of the formation of the Uzbek SSR (February 1925), law enforcement agencies operating in the Turkestan ASSR, Bukhara and Khorezm People's Soviet Republics were transferred to the People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs of the Uzbek SSR. Commissariat was responsible for the general control over the activities of criminal investigation departments.

The Department of Police and Criminal Investigation was established under the Central Administrative Department of the People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs of the Uzbek SSR. It included 7 regional divisions (Tashkent, Fergana, Samarkand, Zarafshan, Kashkadarya, Surkhandarya and Khorezm), one district-city (in the old city of Tashkent), 13 districts (Mirzachul, Kokand, Andijan, Namangan, Jizzakh, Khojand, Kattakurgan, Nurata, Karmana, Kitab, Shahrisabz, Guzar, Bauman and Sariosiyo) and the pre-station division of Samarkand region. 

On December 1, 1925, the People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs adopted the "Regulation on the Soviet Workers and Peasants' Militia of the Uzbek SSR." The first paragraph of this regulation indicates: "The Soviet Workers and Peasants' Militia of the Uzbek SSR is the executive body of the central and local authorities. It implements resolutions, orders and decrees issued to protect the revolutionary order and to ensure safety."

The police had the following responsibilities during that period:

- protection of the revolutionary order, ensuring citizens' personal and property safety;

- cooperating in the implementation of the issued laws, decisions, orders and decrees;

- corrections officers;

- combating crime;

- controlling the sanitary in settlements;

-  the issuance of passports to the population, registration of relevant documents for the receipt of parcels and payments sent by mail and the restoration of lost documents;

- collecting of administrative fines;

- controlling of agriculture and the number of cattle

On September 23, 1926, the People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs of the Uzbek SSR adopted a decree to increase the efficiency of criminal investigation and police force. The heads of all regional administrative departments were tasked to join the criminal investigation and police departments and appoint to them the leaders.

On December 31, 1930, the People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs was ended. The police department, with its the existing staff, was transferred to the Council of People's Commissars, and the relevant territorial executive committees headed the police departments in the provinces, cities and districts.

In the 1930s, the former Soviet Union started to implement the passport system, and the local passport service began functioning.

On May 25, 1931, the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR approved the Regulation on the Workers 'and Peasants' Militia. 

On April 3, 1932, the Council of the People's Commissariat of the Uzbek SSR, approved the "Regulation on the Main Directorate of Workers 'and Peasants' Militia under the Council of the People's Commissariat of the Uzbek SSR". The charter states that "the Main Directorate of the Workers' and Peasants' Militia directs the police in maintaining public order and protecting the revolutionary government, also protecting the personal safety, property stability and rights of citizens."

On December 27, 1932, the Central Executive Committee of the USSR and the Council of People's Commissars established the Main Department of the Workers 'and Peasants' Militia under the United State Political Administration (OGPU), which also included the Criminal Investigation Department.

Initially, young police officers trained in the 2-3-month training courses, later in 1932, the Tashkent Specialized Police School was established to prepare lawyers for the police. 

According to the resolution of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR of July 10, 1934, the People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs was reorganized. The state security agencies and the General Directorate of Police started functioning under it. 

In November-December 1935, the Ministry confirmed the procedure for approval and dismissal, certifying the entire management of the militia, awarding with special titles and badges of the staff, and clearly defining the rights and responsibilities of the administration.

On March 3, 1936, the State Vehicle Inspection Service started functioning within the police.

In the operational entities of the People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs, the titles were assigned to the leaders based on their specialized training and service certification and work experience. The service had following special ranks: Police Sergeant, Junior Lieutenant, Lieutenant, Senior Lieutenant, Police Major, Senior Police Major, Police Inspector, Commissioner and Police Director-General.   

Police force in the period of World War II (1941-1945 years.)

The Uzbek people, along with other nations, made great sacrifices for the victory over fascism in World War II. Also, hundreds of thousands more died on the labour front together with the nearly 400,000 veterans who died in frontline battles.

The Uzbek police, including the Tashkent Police School, prepared many brave defenders of the Motherland. They fought heroically on the fronts and brutally defeated the invaders.

The Tashkent police school became one of the main foundations for training operational staff. Due to staff shortages, 3-month and 20-day courses were organized as an addition to the central department, where the study period was nine months.

Due to the conditions of the war, state organizations made many changes in the structure, responsibilities and their assigned powers. In February 1941, the USSR People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs and its local branches started working in two administrations: the People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs and the People's Commissariat for State Security.  

In conditions of war, the reduction of personnel posed difficult challenges, and urgent measures were taken to provide the police to overcome these difficulties. Mostly, the wounded ones who returned from the front, people who couldn't serve in the army due to their health and age and women worked in the police ranks. For example, from 1942 to 1945, the cadets of the Tashkent Police School were replenished with women. During this period, the percentage of women was 30-60% of the total number of school cadets.

Because of the shortage of police personnel, the People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs of the Uzbek SSR issued a special order on June 27, 1941, which helped students of the Tashkent Police School instantly graduate and receive a permit to serve in the police.

The People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs of the Uzbek SSR issued an order on June 30, 1941 "On the cancellation of leave for employees of the police and the recall of employees on vacation." Based on this order, on July 1, the People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs of the Uzbek SSR distributed the instructions on strengthening discipline and security in all regions, on intensifying operational measures to search for crimes and to organize a daily duty of police chiefs, on ensuring direct participation of regional leaders in crime. As a result, the range of responsibilities and powers of the police further expanded. 

On July 20, 1941, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR  issued a decree on the unification of the USSR Commissariat for State Security and the USSR People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs into a single People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs.

On February 9, 1943, following the decision of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, selective titles and badges were introduced for police personnel. The resolution provided for the following titles:

3rd class (level) police commissioner,

2nd class police commissioner.

The 1st class police commissioner.

The 1st class was the rank of a senior commander, i.e. the level of a police major, lieutenant colonel (junior) and colonel (considered senior lieutenant). The 2nd class was the rank of junior lieutenant, lieutenant, senior lieutenant and captain (considered as mid chief). The 3rd class (junior heads) included the level of junior militia sergeant, senior sergeant, sergeant major and ordinary unit - militia corporal.

In April 1943, the People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs was divided into two separate independent commissariats. The main goal of it was to "secure public and state safety in the country, improve the activities of foreign agencies and crime prevention."

From the first days of the war, many members of the republican militia voluntarily joined the ranks of the active army. 

In the early months of the war, based on the order of the People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs of the Uzbek SSR, 57 senior officials of the republic were promptly sent to the Red Army. Besides, 60% of students of the Tashkent Police School, 30% of commanders and teachers, 1,489 Samarkand police officers, 204 best employees of the Tashkent Railway Police fought in the Uzbek National Division and General Panfilov's Division.

During the war, the volume of responsibilities of law enforcement agencies steadily increased, and Uzbek police received new duties. 

These duties included the followings: 

guarding economic facilities, 

combating the labour front and the refusal to mobilize labour, 

controlling evacuated people in different areas (preventing the spread of false information that can be propagated by them), 

preventing the looting of military supplies, 

monitoring over the purchase and sale of food and industrial products and food cards, 

fighting against the neglect of children, 

assisting in finding people who have lost contact with relatives and more. 

On January 23, 1942, based on the resolution of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR "On the settling of orphans in relevant establishments", special commissions were established in local executive committees. 

Those commissions worked in conjunction with the police to ensure that orphans were brought up and placed in relevant orphanages, that they could be employed, that they protected the rights of children and that they were not abandoned. The number of distribution rooms in the police stations increased to receive evacuated children and locate them in orphanages.

In 1944, children's inspectors and traffic police on the Tashkent Railway identified 20,690 homeless and orphaned children at trains and stations and placed them in orphanages. The Central Information Bureau of the Passport Department of the Main Police Department, established in 1941,  registered their permanent residence.  

During the war years, the bureau received 3.5 million letters asking for the whereabouts of relatives, and police reported the new addresses of more than 2,861,000 people. Also, the bureau found and returned more than 20,000 missing children to their parents. Data shows that from 1941 to May 1943, 190,000 children across the Union lost contact with their parents. Every police officer had a great responsibility for helping such parents and children. Police officers of Surkhandarya region also took an active part in such events, placing 1,422 orphans in their homes and orphanages in 1944 and the first quarter of 1945.

In general, during the war years, special commissions set up in various regions carried out many measures to reduce neglected young children and increased the number of police receiver-distribution centres in large settlements. The main responsibility of these centres was to find and educate neglected children, to investigate and analyze the causes of such cases, to bring the perpetrators to justice with the help of prosecutors and police, to find parents or relatives of neglected children. 

During the wartime, the number of neglected children greatly increased. Police were useful in locating neglected and unsupervised children and reducing the widespread crime among them. Receiver-distribution centres for children under the Ministry of Internal Affairs were established and worked regularly at railway stations and public places in many major cities in Uzbekistan, including Tashkent, Samarkand, Andijan, Fergana and other cities. Those activities significantly reduced crime among young children in wartime. 

As a result of the financial difficulties, social problems intensified, and the population's demand for the number of products increased. After the resolution of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR on July 18, 1941, on the distribution (selling) particular food and industrial products needed by the population by card at an individual rate caused to increasing illegal trade relations, the crime of food and cards in bringing and printing time.  

New types of crime began to develop after implementing of food rationing. On March 20, 1942, the Main Police Department of the People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs of the USSR issued the order "On the fight against food robbery and similar crimes" to eliminate it. The law involved practical measures on combating crime and abuses in food distribution and industrial cards in public places and transport, shops and bazaars, as well as producing fake cards. For example, a group of criminals involved in the production of printed food rationings, along with the Tajik police, were exposed. Police confiscated a large number of fake coupons and money from the criminals. They found printing presses in Dushanbe and Tashkent during the investigation. They also revealed that this criminal group stole more than 500  tons of bread in a short time.

Tashkent police revealed one of the most massive crimes committed on the territory of Uzbekistan on December 29, 1944. As a result of practical measures of inspectors of the Criminal Investigation Department, they detained a criminal group for producing and using fake rationings for 400 tons of bakery products. 

As a result of the investigations, police confiscated 12 million rubles in cash, 2,100 gold coins and other valuables from them. Their crimes were proven, and all members of the criminal group were sentenced to the severe penalty.

After the resolution of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Uzbekistan and the Council of People's Commissars of the Uzbek SSR "On measures to implement the plan for the supply of all types of grain" (November 18-20, 1943), law enforcement agencies were responsible for the prevention of looting of grain products, control over their reception and delivery points, the security of agricultural storage facilities, participation in planting and harvesting of grain and other agricultural products.

In 1942, organized crime increased in many Central Asian cities like Tashkent, Almaty, Frunze, Shymkent, which committed severe and grave crimes, such as intended murder, aggression, robbery. 

Based on the instructions of the People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs of the USSR, the Main Police Department sent specially trained personnel to the Tashkent city criminal investigation department to eliminate this situation. As a result of their joint efforts with local officials, they arrested 102 armed criminals in a short time in and around Tashkent, some of whom (who were considered dangerous to society) were sentenced to capital penalty. Later, they significantly reduced the number of severe crimes and prevented possible crimes in Tashkent.

During the wartime, the law enforcement agencies worked in hardship, because of the declaration of the state of war, a large number of qualified officers of the internal affairs bodies of the republic went to the front and other places.

In the battles against the fascists, law enforcement officers demonstrated a high level of heroism and bravery. They took part in Ukraine, Belarus, Leningrad, Kharkiv, the Kursk Arc, the North and the West, and other fronts, and showed exceptional courage and bravery. 

We can mention Moydin Khasanov, Gani Valiev, Tojiboy Rajapov, Olimboy Omonbaev, Ummat Ubaydullaev, Dina Lyujarovskaya, Nina Krasikova, Gani Usmanov, Rahmon Abdullaev, Nabijon Akbarov, Parda Omonturdiev, Nurkhon Abdullaev, Vasiliy Asachev,Juma Bekbaev, Shermurat Bebitov, Mengli Ergashev, Petr Zvezdin, Yuldosh Ismoilov, Vladimir Kim, Boboqul Murotov, Gafur Mengliboev, Yusuf Mamatkulov, Khurram Murtozoev, Haydar Mahmudov, Kholik Mardonakulov, Eron Navruzov, Eshmomin Nukarov, Nurmamat Normatov, Insaf Nuriev, Dadako'zi Atakuziev, Asil Rasulov, Temur Ravshanov, Rajabali Sattorov, Juma Suyundukov, Gofur Turakulov, Musurmonqul Turaev, Egamberdi Khojanov, Juma Kholliev, Ruzi Shahaev, Roman Yakimov, Hamid Ahmedov, Tojiboy Rejapov, Mamatkul Suraev, Saidahmad Isaev, Akmal Gaziev, Kimsan Qambarov, Vladimir Bistrevsky, Evgeny Shanin, Karimjon Najiev, Khidir Davirov and others as the patriotic employees of the internal affairs bodies of the republic.

Their heroism in battles was awarded various state orders and medals.

Rakhimov, who served as the First Deputy Minister of Internal Affairs, said about the participants of the war: "People who were war heroes were also heroes of the police. They fought against crime without sacrificing their lives, just like in the war.

They always showed the qualities of loyalty to their service, diligence, perseverance, determination, devotion in their subsequent work in the law enforcement agencies.”  

Police force in the Uzbek SSR (1950 1989 years.) 

The government of the republic had the task of strengthening the police, replenishing its ranks and training, and improving their work in the first years after the war. All police departments lacked staff, especially as it was difficult to fill it with qualified personnel.

The general education level of the ordinary police officers those working in the republican police was low. For example, in mid-1945, almost 2% of police officers in the Tashkent garrisons were illiterate, while 32% of officers were 7th grade or less educated. That's why the Personnel Department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Uzbek SSR organized special evening secondary schools in the regional departments of internal affairs, where law enforcement officers finished secondary education. 

In March 1946, the People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs has renamed the Ministry of the Affairs.

In February 1948, the police of Uzbekistan established investigation divisions and their units. On March 27, 1953, the Council of Ministers of the Soviet Government adopted a resolution "On measures to strengthen public order and the fight against crime." The Ministry of Internal Affairs and the Commissariat for State Security have merged the Ministry of Internal Affairs.

On January 13, 1960, the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR was dissolved. The Ministries of Internal Affairs of the Soviet republics started managing of all its operations. On February 22, 1962, the Ministries of Internal Affairs of the Soviet Republics had renamed the Ministry for Securing the Public Order. On September 7, 1962, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Uzbek SSR issued a decree on the reorganization of the Ministry of Public Order of the Uzbek SSR.  

Based on the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of July 26, 1966, the Union-Republican Ministry for Securing Public Order of the USSR was established to provide unified operational guidance to the activities of public order bodies. They reorganized the entire system of management of law enforcement agencies. 

Newspaper "Na postu", September 12, 1962, Volume 72.

On November 25, 1968, the Ministry for Security Public Order was again reorganized into the Ministry of Internal Affairs. By the decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Uzbek SSR of December 4, 1968, city and district departments and divisions of internal affairs were established in Uzbekistan. It includes the police office, security department, state fire inspections and  Inspectorate for Correctional Services.  

The main shortcoming of the personnel policy of the former Soviet Union was the sending of inappropriate personnel to the local conditions. 

For example, in 1983-1989,  the former Soviet Union sent a total of 150 employees to the Ministry of Internal Affairs under the slogan "Recovery of socialist legislation in Uzbekistan." These chauvinists, who worked in the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Uzbek SSR, never cared about the local population. They intended to rise through the ranks of their career by abusing the Uzbek people. According to the facts of the late retired Major General G. Rakhimov, who was deputy minister of Internal Affairs in those years, the ethnic Uzbeks headed only two (agricultural and medical departments) of the ministry's 27 departments and divisions. 

As a result of repressions based on falsifications called "Cotton Scandal" and "Uzbek Affair" created by the investigation team of the former Soviet Prosecutor's Office (headed by T. Gdlyan and N. Ivanov), which operated in Uzbekistan in 1983-1989, many of the bodies of internal affairs managers and employees were arrested wrongfully.

1983-1989 were tough years for our people. After the early death of Sharaf Rashidov, a unique man who transformed Uzbekistan from an agrarian republic into an industrialized one with many factories and qualified personnel, the repression forces in Uzbekistan began their slander works.

During this period, about 22,000 people were arrested only in the "Cotton Scandal" (there were other cases too). Among them were enthusiastic and dedicated officers of many law enforcement agencies and their family members. This activity began in 1983 with the arrest of A. Muzaffarov, the head of the Department Against Misappropriation of Socialist Property (shortly The OBKhSS).

The centre, accustomed to using the force of repression every decade from 1920 until the collapse of the Soviet Union to terrorize the people, took the case from Uzbek law enforcement and handed it over to the USSR Prosecutor's Office.  

Gdlyan and N. Ivanov, senior investigators on extreme cases under the USSR Prosecutor General's Office, were appointed to head the investigative group set up by the USSR prosecutor's office. They had power, including military equipment, helicopters and armed soldiers. In this way, they began their offensive activities of unprecedented violence in Uzbekistan.

Turn by turn, the investigative group met with the head of the Bukhara region police department, General A. Norov, and his two deputies - Colonel Sh. Rahimov, Lieutenant Colonel V. Mullin, then Generals H. Norbotaev, S. Sobirov, and Colonel T. Hayitov, I. Pozilkhanov, M. Alimov and Ministry’s many other officials arrested on fabricated charges.

Later, this manner continued throughout the country. As a result, dozens of law enforcement officials have fallen victim to various slanders.  

Ilyukhin's documentary essay "On the falsification of the Uzbeks Case", the novel by Isfandiyor "Crisis or the game of generals", lawyer T. Kahramanov's documentary novel "1643 days in the Devil's clutches", A.Usmanov's pamphlet "The Kingdom of Evil" and many other articles show all information about the wrongdoings of this criminal group and their victims.

In the early years of our independence, the first President of the Republic of Uzbekistan I.Karimov initiated in justifying all the victims mentioned above, and they were fully acquitted.

In the period of the Soviet regime, the system of internal affairs faced many structural changes. But they didn't affect on the essence, the republican Ministry of Internal Affairs could not act independently, and functioned as a territorial body of the Union Ministry of Internal Affairs. As a result, people became distrustful regarding the police, and the police became a coercive and punitive body of the Soviet regime.

During this period, despite many measures taken to combat hooliganism and alcoholism in the country and to prevent juvenile delinquency, remained as one of the most pressing problems in some areas of the society.    

III. Reforms in the system of internal affairs bodies of Uzbekistan during the period of indepence



The establishment of the Internal Affairs in Namangan started from October 28, 1917. On the same day, the authorities decided to establish a working militia in Namangan. Before that, military units were responsible for public security. Thousands of Uzbeks, Kyrgyz, Tajiks, Kazakhs and other nationalities who considered the peace and tranquillity of the people as sacred duty worked at Namangan militia. The beginning of the activities of Namangan militia coincided with challenging and turbulent times. In 1918, a special group headed by Usmon Abdurahmanov, head of the Namangan district emergency committee, Alexei Mukhin, police chief, and Vasily Khutorney, head of the district guard, played an essential role in maintaining the peace and tranquillity of our people during the severe economic difficulty times, challenging transition period and civil war. 56 rifles and 19 pistols were allocated to arm the city-county militia, instead of 310 rifles, 150 pistols and 150 swords. While the city-county police force is supposed to employ 310 police officers across the state, only 135 people do all the work. Only 50 per cent of them were armed. In May 1922, the Namangan city-county party committee, police and military command held a committee meeting. They decided to reconsider the militia's personnel and clean it of accidental intruders, leaving only those who could sincerely protect the country and the people. As a result, the work of the police became more effective. In 1919-1920, Mamasidiq Parpiboev, Akhundada Solikhon Hojiev, Hojiakbar Rakhmatov, D.Romanov, M.Mirmuhammedov, M.Parpiboev, T.Kasimov and other militia officers were awarded state prizes for their selfless services in protecting Balikchi, Choja, Uchtepa, Jiydakapa, Chartak, Shahand and Turakurgan districts. The names of Haydar Kochkarov, Abdukodir Yunusov, Qutbiddin Najmiddinov, who sacrificed their lives, remained forever in the regional police history. Namangan region was founded on March 6, 1941. There were seven districts, 83 villages, nine towns, nine settlements. During the Second World War, the attacks of inside enemies did not bring peace to the people. Gani Valiev a Namangan regional police with the full badge of orders, A. Akhlyostin, A. Kobulov, B. Dmitrov, V. Jurbenko, R. Teleshov, M. Pichugin, A. Abbasov, Ya. Lazarev, T. Kamolov and others fought bravely on the battlefields of World War II.

On January 20, 1960, the region was abolished and annexed to Andijan and Fergana territories. But on December 18, 1967, it was reorganized again. The regional department of internal affairs was established to maintain public order in the region and prevent various crimes. At that time, the regional police department had more than 300 employees. In recent years, the Namangan Regional Department of Internal Affairs staff has become a leader in all areas.

Major General Kudrat Ergashev led the Namangan militia in 1968-1973;

Colonel Valentin Gladkov in 1973-1974;

Colonel Muzaffar Alimov in 1974-1976;

1978-1984 Colonel Yakub Mahammadjanov;

1984-1986 Colonel Evgeny Titov;

1986-1990 Colonel Gennady Gavrilichev;

1990-1991 Colonel Bahodir Mamadjonov;

1992-1993 Colonel Rustam Abbasov;

1993-1994 Major-General Irkin Norgitov;

1994-1997 Colonel Rustam Tulyaganov;

1997-2002 Major-General Bakhtiyor Subanov;

2002-2004 Major-General Tohir Mullajanov;

2004-2006 Major-General Ahmad Usmanov;

2006-2009 Major General Talat Sattarov;

2009-2013 a Colonel Bahodir Kurbanov;

in 2014-2015 Colonel Aziz Bobokhojaev;

in 2015-2016 Colonel Rustam Djuraev;

in 2016-2017 Colonel Aziz Toshpulatov;

in 2017-2019 Colonel Adil Atakhodjaev.

In conclusion, we can say that a police officer always dedicates his life to the devotion of the Motherland and selflessness for its development. Due to the hard work and honourable profession of this field's representatives, our people's lives are peaceful and prosperous.

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